Tag Archives: AP

What is a High School Profile and What Role Does it Play in College Admissions?

College admissions staff always view your transcript within the context of your high school. Colleges recognize that schools vary greatly. As Northwestern states, “Every secondary school is different in its level of competitiveness and in the range of courses offered. These factors are also considered when admission decisions are rendered.”

Each school’s guidance office develops a 2-4 page “school profile” that describes the community and high school.  While there is no standard format for the high school profile, typical information includes the curriculum, grading system, grade distribution, average test scores, and college acceptances.  The profiles tell colleges how rigorous and competitive the high school is, and this information impacts the way a college will evaluate a students’ grades and course selection.

Your GPA

The high school profile typically explains how your GPA is calculated, which includes what courses factor into the GPA, and whether advanced courses receive a weighting. For example, Schreiber High School in Port Washington, NY gives an extra .5 weighting for Honors courses and 1.0 for AP courses.

Students often wonder how they can possibly be compared with students from other high schools. The answer is that in addition to viewing your high school’s approach to your transcript, colleges typically recalculate an unweighted GPA using a standard formula, so that they can compare students from different schools with different GPA scales.  Usually, colleges will use a 4.0 scale, where A+ and A = 4.0, B+ = 3.7, B- = 3.3, B = 3.0, and so on.

Grade and Test Score Distribution

High school profiles also typically include a grade distribution chart showing the percentage of students at different GPA brackets or the distribution of each grade for each course; as well as average standardized test scores for the SAT and ACT.

When viewed alongside average standardized testing scores, GPA information reflects the degree of grade inflation or deflation, and for private schools may also reflect the selectivity of admissions to attend the school. For example, if most students at a school earn As, but have average standardized test scores compared to national or state figures, colleges would conclude that the school has grade inflation.

Rigor of Curriculum

Colleges also evaluate whether you have challenged yourself in your coursework.  Again, colleges view you within the context of the curriculum offered at your school. The variety of curricula include International Baccalaureate, Advanced Placement, both, or neither. Each high school profile clearly describes the curriculum available at the school.

For example, if your high school offers a minimum number of AP courses, you will not be expected to have taken the same number of APs as students with access to a large number of AP courses. For example, Great Neck South High School, a public high school, offers 31 AP courses, as compared with Chaminade High School, a private Catholic school, offers none.

Having said that, it is possible to take courses outside your high school to fulfill your intellectual passion and also demonstrate this to colleges. If you have strong interest in a particular academic area in which coursework is not sufficiently offered at your school, you could consider taking courses outside of school – at a local college or online. For example, students interested in pursuing engineering or other STEM fields sometimes opt to take Multivariable Calculus or Computer Science at a local college or through online courses if their high school does not offer these classes.

For guidance on how to reach your academic potential, feel free to contact us at www.collegiategateway.com. As always, we’re happy to help!

The ABCs of Secondary School Curricula: Advanced Placement (AP)

 Why are so many students participating in Advanced Placement (AP) programs in the U.S.? In addition to enabling students to explore subject matter in greater depth, these courses and exams have become a gateway into prestigious and highly selective schools.

Due to the important role that this program now plays in the college admissions process, it is no wonder that there has been a tremendous surge in its popularity. In fact, during this week and next, almost 3 million high school students will be taking AP exams.

According to a recent study, from 1992 to 2012, the number of schools in the United States which offered AP courses nearly doubled, and the number of AP exams administered increased more than 500%. The AP program has international popularity as well; universities in over 60 countries outside the United States recognize AP in the admission process.

In this blog, we’ll provide an overview of the AP program, help navigate its complexities, and explore its potential benefits. AP courses are accepted at virtually all U.S. colleges and universities, but how the colleges use AP scores and credits varies. Some schools use AP scores to allow for advanced placement (skipping over entry-level courses), college credit, the satisfaction of distribution requirements, and/or early graduation.

AP Exam Scoring

To make sure that you understand how the AP exam scoring relates to college-readiness and college grades, here is a quick synopsis of how the exams are graded. The Advanced Placement Program offers more than 30 courses and exams. Each AP course concludes with a college-level assessment developed and scored by college and university faculty, as well as experienced AP teachers.

Research consistently shows that students who receive a score of 3 or higher on AP exams typically experience greater academic success in college and have higher graduation rates than their non-AP peers. Selective colleges treat strong scores on the APs as additional evidence of your ability to master course content. In order to be considered for credit or placement, you must send your official AP score report to the college you’re planning to attend.

Scores on the free-response questions are weighted and combined with the results of the multiple-choice questions, and this raw score is converted into a composite AP score of 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1.

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For example, earning a 5 is the equivalent of receiving an A in the college course. Similarly, AP Exam scores of 4 are equivalent to college grades of A−, B+, and B. AP Exam scores of 3 are equivalent to college grades of B−, C+, and C (See AP’s college database for specific policies at each university).

Benefits of Taking AP Courses/Exams

AP courses are more challenging than standard high school level courses. However, there are many benefits to taking AP courses, which can make them worth the extra work required to succeed.

AP helps you develop college-level skills, thereby easing the transition from high school to college

AP classes require college-level critical thinking skills. As a result, taking these classes can help high school students improve in areas like high-level computation, essay writing, and problem-solving, thereby easing the transition into college.

Adjusting to life in college is often challenging, as students have to make sense of many changes happening at once. For many college freshmen, this is the first time they are living away from home. They must learn to be self-sufficient while also navigating a new social and academic world. Taking AP courses in high school can help ease the academic transition, giving students one less thing to worry about.

AP courses are valued by college admission counselors

Admission officers specifically look for students who have taken the most challenging courses available to them. Success in high-level courses, like APs or the International Baccalaureate program, is a strong indicator of preparedness for college. Often, high schools reflect the rigor of AP coursework by weighting these courses higher than other courses in the GPA calculation, which provides students with a higher weighted GPA, and potentially a higher class rank (for high schools that rank).

 AP classes can help you save money

Taking AP classes in high school (and scoring well on the exam) can yield college credit. Depending on your university’s requirements, you may not have to take these subjects again in college. So, instead of paying a substantial amount for the courses in college, you only have to pay a small portion in order to take the AP exam in high school (See AP’s college database for specific policies at each university). AP exams can also help you to graduate early, if you so desire.

AP course credit enables students to take higher-level courses and a broader array of courses

Earning college credit in high school will free up your schedule, giving you the opportunity to take more electives in college. Gaining course credit through AP exams allows you to skip introductory courses and enter directly into higher-level courses. This is helpful for students who have already chosen a major by allowing them to dive right into the material they find most interesting. It is also helpful for students who are undecided, as it allows them to take more electives by skipping some general education requirements.

 

How Many and Which AP courses Should You Take?

Students and parents often ask how many AP courses is the “right” amount to be competitive in college admissions. The answer, as with so many other college-related questions, is “it depends!” Here are a few factors that should inform your planning of which and how many AP courses to take:

  • How strong are you academically? It’s important to consider this honestly and frankly; you want to challenge yourself to a reasonable degree, but not be overwhelmed by coursework beyond your capabilities.
  • To that end, what are your academic and career interests? Many students do not yet have a definite plan for their major or career, which is perfectly fine! But if you do have interests at this point, and discuss them in your college applications, they should be supported by your academics.For example, if you plan to apply to an engineering school within a University, it would be expected that you take AP Calculus, and you would strengthen your admissions chances if you also take AP levels of relevant sciences, such as AP Biology for Biomedical Engineering, or AP Physics for Mechanical Engineering.
  • What is your work ethic? Are you willing to do the extra work required by AP courses, and to participate more deeply in classroom discussion?
  • What are your other commitments? Family or work obligations, extracurricular activities, and other commitments are both important and time-consuming. Evaluate your time realistically, and choose an appropriate number of AP courses.
  • What AP courses are available at your high school?
    Colleges evaluate the rigor of your high school curriculum relative to what’s available at your high school. In addition to ensuring that your course-load is manageable for you, evaluate it in the context of what’s available to you.

 Important Tips & Takeaways 

AP classes will challenge you on an intellectual level, ease transition to college, and give you a chance to earn college credit while still in high school. Nevertheless, it’s important for students to show a balance between formal and informal studies to college admissions officers. Often, students feel pressured to add another AP course — sometimes a fifth, sixth, or seventh — and, consequently, drop something they really enjoy, like sports, music, or extracurricular activities.

But in actuality, most admissions officers want to see well-rounded individuals who are involved in extracurricular activities. Therefore, it is not necessarily the best course of action to drop extracurricular activities in order to fit more courses into your schedule. Challenge yourself in a way that is reasonable for you, while making sure that your course load provides you with material that keeps you interested and engaged.

Otherwise, you may find yourself feeling overwhelmed, which could lead to burnout. “There are people who arrive at college out of gas,” says William Fitzsimmons, dean of admissions at Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. “It’s crazy for students to think in lockstep they must take four or five or six advanced-placement courses because colleges demand it.”

Wondering what you should do? Collegiate Gateway has a wealth of experience in advising for future curriculum planning. Feel free to contact us—we’re always happy to help!

The ABCs of Secondary School Curricula: International Baccalaureate (IB) Program

Colleges evaluate applicants’ academics within the context of the curricula offered at their secondary school. In the United States, many high schools offer an AP (Advanced Placement) curriculum and the IB (International Baccalaureate) program, and abroad many English-speaking countries provide yet another curriculum, the A-levels.

Our series – The ABC’s of Secondary School Curricula – will consist of individual blog posts explaining each of these programs, concluding with a final post comparing and contrasting the three. As Part I of our look at alternative secondary school curricula, let’s begin with the highly respected International Baccalaureate (IB) programs.

While the IB curriculum’s holistic approach to education is continuing to gain increasing popularity within the United States, it’s already well-established throughout the world. In order to grasp a better understanding of what this “holistic approach” really means, below is an overview of the IB curriculum and assessment techniques.

IB Programs

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The International Baccalaureate is a non-profit educational foundation that offers four different programs for students aged three to nineteen: IB Primary Years Program, IB Middle Years Program, IB Diploma Program, and IB Career-Related Certificate. 869 high schools in the United States currently offer their students the curriculum and an opportunity to graduate with an IB diploma.

Each program works to cultivate students’ “intellectual, personal, emotional, and social skills to live, learn, and work in a rapidly globalizing world.” For the purpose of this post, we will be focusing on the Diploma Program, which is offered to students ages 16-19. However, the three programs are philosophically aligned, each centered on developing attributes of the IB learner profile. The profile aims to develop learners who are:

  • Inquirers
  • Knowledgeable
  • Thinkers
  • Communicators
  • Principled
  • Open-minded
  • Caring
  • Risk-takers
  • Balanced
  • Reflective

The IB Diploma Program (DP) is a rigorous academic program with final exams that prepares students for success in college and a lifelong love of learning. It has been designed to address the intellectual, social, emotional and physical well-being of students.

The IB Diploma Program Curriculum

The IB curriculum is divided into six groups of content knowledge, similar to areas of concentration. To ensure breadth of knowledge and understanding, IB students must choose one subject from each of the first five groups. In addition, students may choose either an arts subject from the sixth group, or a second subject from the first five groups.

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  • Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature
  • Group 2: Language Acquisition
  • Group 3: Individuals and Societies
  • Group 4: Sciences
  • Group 5: Mathematics
  • Group 6: The Arts

 

One facet that sets IB apart from other honors programs, including Advanced Placement, is that students are required to take courses in the six subjects simultaneously.

Subjects are taken in either higher level (HL) or standard level (SL). At least three (and no more than four) subjects are taken at higher level (240 teaching hours), while the other subjects are taken at standard level (150 teaching hours).

Students are free to choose their sixth subject, which might include an entirely new creative course or a second science, social science, etc. With respect to course planning, it is vital to select the ‘best-fit’ subjects with respect to a student’s academic and career goals.

The IB program cultivates higher-level thinking skills and self-discipline. “IB students are responsible for their own learning, choosing topics and devising their own projects, while teachers act more as supervisors or mentors than sources of facts. IB emphasizes research and encourages students to learn from their peers, with students actively critiquing one another’s work.”

Assessment Approach

Students are assessed through teacher observation (“external assessments”) and testing (“internal assessments”). Forms of testing include: essays, structured problems, short-response questions, data-response questions, text-response questions, case-study questions, and multiple-choice questions.

Teacher observations include oral work in languages, fieldwork in geography, lab work in the sciences, investigations in mathematics, and artistic performances. The internal assessments begin in January of junior year and conclude in February of senior year, while the external exams take place in May of senior year.

A student’s examination performance in individual subjects is scored on a scale of 1–7 points with an additional 3 points available based on performance in the theory of knowledge (TOK) and the extended essay components. Students who display satisfactory levels of performance across all subject areas and achieve a minimum of 24 points (out of a possible 45) are awarded the IB diploma.

IB tests are graded by a third party, outside of school, and exams are the same worldwide, regardless of where a student lives. In addition to testing, students completing the IB Diploma Program must participate in community service and write a research paper.

Although students are encouraged to enroll in the comprehensive IB Diploma Program, some schools, like Locust Valley High School in New York, allow students to elect to take fewer than the six subjects. In these cases, students who fail to satisfy all requirements or elect to take fewer than six subjects are awarded a certificate for exams completed, instead of the full IB Diploma.

Benefits of Participating in an IB Program

  • Students are more prepared for the academic rigors of college.

A study of IB Diploma programs in Chicago found that when compared to a matched comparison group, students in the IB DP are 40 percent more likely to attend four-year colleges and 50 percent more likely to attend more selective colleges. When in college, IB DP students report feeling prepared to succeed and indeed excel in their coursework, often stating explicitly that their experiences in the IB DP taught the specific skills and behaviors demanded of them in college.

  • College admissions officers look favorably on IB Program courses.

According to Marilyn E. McGrath, Harvard’s Director of Admissions, “Success in an IB program correlates well with success at Harvard. We are always pleased to see the credentials of the IB Diploma Program on the transcript. GPA is not nearly as important a factor in university admission as the IB Diploma. If a student has to choose, choose the Diploma over protecting the GPA.”

“We’re looking for students who are engagers—students who are maximizing opportunities in and out of the classroom. What’s very unique about IB is that through its curriculum it allows students to be able to satisfy the requirements of the types of students that we’re looking for,” states Dr. Kedra Ishop, vice provost and director of admissions at the University of Texas—Austin.

  • By participating in an IB Program, you might be eligible to earn college credit or place into more advanced courses, depending on your IB exam scores.

Colleges differ in their policies of whether they grant credit for both SL (Standard Level) and HL (Higher Level) exams and what scores are required. Some colleges automatically provide credit for certain scores, whereas others rely on department heads or deans to decide.

Most importantly, colleges differ in how IB credit may be used by students: typical options include the ability to waive out of courses, take upper-level courses, satisfy distribution requirements, and/or graduate early. In this respect, IB credit offers a similar array of options as AP credit. Watch for our next blog in the series, focusing on AP Curriculum.

 

Below is a chart detailing the policies of several selective schools. Check the websites for the most updated information.

 

School IB Program Recognition Policy
Brown University Three HL courses can be assigned six course credits. With departmental approval, an SL course with a superior mark may be counted for one credit.
Columbia University Grants 6 points of credit for an IB HL exam score of 6 or 7, provided the score is in a discipline that Columbia offers as an undergraduate program. However, the maximum number of points a student may receive is 16, and no points are awarded until the first year of study is completed.
Dartmouth College Grants up to six course credits for superior HL scores in fields of study offered by Dartmouth’s Arts and Sciences departments (typically one course credit for each HL exam score of 6 or 7; a second credit may be granted, subject to departmental determinations.) These credits may be used to reduce the number of courses required for graduation, but may not normally be used to satisfy any other degree requirement.
Duke University Placement and credit are available for IB HL exams with scores of 6 and 7.
Georgetown University Credit will be awarded for specified HL subjects with scores of 6 or 7.
Harvard University Students who have earned the IB diploma with a grade of 7 on at least three HL exams may qualify for Advanced Standing.
MIT Only exams taken at the IB HL are recognized.
NYU IB HL exams with grades of 6 or 7 may be considered for credit and/or placement depending on the area of study and/or program requirements. Typically, 8 semester hours of credit (equivalent to two terms or one academic year of a specific subject) will be awarded for each HL.
Northwestern University Results of HL IB exams are evaluated for possible award of academic credit.
Princeton University Uses exam results for advanced placement purposes only. A score of 6 or 7 on the HL exams is normally accorded advanced placement recognition.
You can use advanced placement in three ways; to enter upper-level courses; to fulfill the foreign language requirement; to become eligible for graduation in three or three and one-half years (advanced standing).
Tufts University Recognizes the IB for admissions purposes, advanced placement, and individual course credit for a maximum of eight credits. With eight credits from the IB, students may graduate in six full-time semesters instead of the eight normally required. Typically, individual course credit is offered for HL exams with scores of 5 through 7. No credit is given for SL courses except for scores of 6 and 7 on English and for scores of 5 or higher in foreign languages.
Tulane University Awards credit or advanced placement for IB scores of 5 or greater on HL exams. No credit or placement will be awarded for SL tests.
University of Michigan Awards credit for IB HL exams only for appropriate academic subjects. No credit is given for SL exams.
University of Notre Dame Students must present scores of 6 and 7 HL exams in order to qualify for credit in specified courses.
University of Virginia Students matriculating in the College of Arts and Sciences will be considered for advanced standing and credit for qualifying scores on HL exams.
Williams College Students presenting scores of 6 or 7 on HL exams may be placed in advanced courses and/or may receive course credit toward the major or concentration. Credit is not awarded for SL courses. IB credit may be used as a prerequisite or in partial fulfillment of the major or concentration requirements. IB credits MAY NOT be used to reduce the normal course load of any semester, to make up a deficiency incurred at Williams, to satisfy the Distribution Requirements, or for acceleration, i.e. completion of the degree in fewer than four years.
Yale University Yale awards as many as two acceleration credits (the equivalent of two Yale courses) in certain subjects to students who have received either a 6 or 7 on the HL exams. These credits can be applied if the student wishes to graduate early, and the decision to accelerate is made during sophomore year. No acceleration credits are awarded for SL exams. Students who score a 6 or 7 on HL exams may also use these scores to place into more advanced courses in some disciplines.

 

Deciding which advanced program of courses to pursue can be a daunting process. Collegiate Gateway is happy to help in planning your high school course options to maximize your academic potential and college admissibility. Feel free to contact us!