Tag Archives: GPA

What is a High School Profile and What Role Does it Play in College Admissions?

College admissions staff always view your transcript within the context of your high school. Colleges recognize that schools vary greatly. As Northwestern states, “Every secondary school is different in its level of competitiveness and in the range of courses offered. These factors are also considered when admission decisions are rendered.”

Each school’s guidance office develops a 2-4 page “school profile” that describes the community and high school.  While there is no standard format for the high school profile, typical information includes the curriculum, grading system, grade distribution, average test scores, and college acceptances.  The profiles tell colleges how rigorous and competitive the high school is, and this information impacts the way a college will evaluate a students’ grades and course selection.

Your GPA

The high school profile typically explains how your GPA is calculated, which includes what courses factor into the GPA, and whether advanced courses receive a weighting. For example, Schreiber High School in Port Washington, NY gives an extra .5 weighting for Honors courses and 1.0 for AP courses.

Students often wonder how they can possibly be compared with students from other high schools. The answer is that in addition to viewing your high school’s approach to your transcript, colleges typically recalculate an unweighted GPA using a standard formula, so that they can compare students from different schools with different GPA scales.  Usually, colleges will use a 4.0 scale, where A+ and A = 4.0, B+ = 3.7, B- = 3.3, B = 3.0, and so on.

Grade and Test Score Distribution

High school profiles also typically include a grade distribution chart showing the percentage of students at different GPA brackets or the distribution of each grade for each course; as well as average standardized test scores for the SAT and ACT.

When viewed alongside average standardized testing scores, GPA information reflects the degree of grade inflation or deflation, and for private schools may also reflect the selectivity of admissions to attend the school. For example, if most students at a school earn As, but have average standardized test scores compared to national or state figures, colleges would conclude that the school has grade inflation.

Rigor of Curriculum

Colleges also evaluate whether you have challenged yourself in your coursework.  Again, colleges view you within the context of the curriculum offered at your school. The variety of curricula include International Baccalaureate, Advanced Placement, both, or neither. Each high school profile clearly describes the curriculum available at the school.

For example, if your high school offers a minimum number of AP courses, you will not be expected to have taken the same number of APs as students with access to a large number of AP courses. For example, Great Neck South High School, a public high school, offers 31 AP courses, as compared with Chaminade High School, a private Catholic school, offers none.

Having said that, it is possible to take courses outside your high school to fulfill your intellectual passion and also demonstrate this to colleges. If you have strong interest in a particular academic area in which coursework is not sufficiently offered at your school, you could consider taking courses outside of school – at a local college or online. For example, students interested in pursuing engineering or other STEM fields sometimes opt to take Multivariable Calculus or Computer Science at a local college or through online courses if their high school does not offer these classes.

For guidance on how to reach your academic potential, feel free to contact us at www.collegiategateway.com. As always, we’re happy to help!

Becoming a Doctor: Med School Admissions

The traditional path to becoming a physician in the United States is to obtain an MD (allopathic) degree from a US medical school.  This blog will provide a brief overview of the application process to medical school, and is part of a series discussing a variety of paths to practicing medicine.

Over the past decade, the number of medical schools and the number of applicants has steadily increased. The AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges) has recommended a 30 percent increase in the number of physicians, in order to address a physician shortage and increased longevity of patients.  Indeed, there are now 151 US med schools, including almost 20 newly accredited med schools in the past decade. During this period, enrollment in US med schools has increased 19% from 75,800 in 2008-2009 to 89,900 in 2017-18.

Yet during this same period, the number of applicants has increased at an even higher rate of 23%, from 42,200 to 51,700. As a result, medical school admissions has become increasingly competitive. The most important factors in admissions remain the numbers, while qualitative factors serve to further differentiate the applicants.

Quantitative Admissions Factors

Your GPA and MCAT score play a significant role in medical school admissions.

GPA

Medical schools look at your overall GPA, as well as your GPA within science and math specifically.

Generally, applicants to medical school are required to take the following courses:

  • 1 year of biology
  • 1 year of physics
  • 2 years of chemistry (through organic chemistry)
  • 1 year of English
  • 1 year of calculus

Some medical schools are more specific about their requirements. For example, Harvard Medical School requires that the chemistry courses include inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry; and that the math includes 1 semester of calculus and 1 semester of statistics (preferably biostatistics). Stanford Medical School also recommends that students take courses in the behavioral and social sciences.

MCAT

In April 2015, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) officially launched a new version of the MCAT, the MCAT15 “to help better prepare tomorrow’s doctors for the rapidly advancing and transforming health care system.” The new MCAT is double in length, includes a fourth section on the social sciences, and has a revamped scoring system. The four sections include:

  • Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems
  • Chemical & Physical Foundations of Biological Systems
  • Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
  • Psychological, Social, & Biological Foundations of Behavior

Each section receives a score ranging from 472 to 528, with 500 as the mean.

See our blog for a detailed discussion of the structure and scoring of the MCAT, and average MCAT scores for selected med schools.

The chart below shows the strong impact of GPA and MCAT scores on acceptance rates. An acceptance rate of about 50% or above requires an MCAT score above 506 (500 is the national average) and a GPA of about 3.6.  For example, a student with a GPA of 3.4-3.59 and an MCAT score of 498-501 would have a 20% acceptance rate; where a student with a GPA of 3.6-3.79 and an MCAT of 506-509 would have a 54% acceptance rate.

Qualitative Admissions Factors

While the academic factors of grades and test scores serve as a screening mechanism, qualitative factors impact which students progress to the next level of receiving secondary applications and interview requests.  The primary qualitative factors are a student’s medically-related experiences and recommendations.

Medically-Related Experiences

The education required to become a physician, as well as the practice of medicine itself, are so rigorous that medical schools want to see evidence that an applicant is thoroughly aware of these demands and has engaged in relevant activities throughout college. These include the four pillars of:

  • Research, including either bench work in a lab, or clinical research with patients.
  • Clinical work, such as volunteering at a nursing home or hospital, or helping doctors with patient research.
  • Shadowing doctors, preferably in a variety of specialties.
  • Community service that shows compassion and your desire to help people.

There are many paths to becoming a doctor.  Some students are passionate about pursuing a career in medicine, but are not competitive for US allopathic medical schools, as a result of grades, test scores, or relevant experience.  In this situation, two viable options are to attend a US osteopathic medical school and receive a DO degree, or to attend medical school in the Caribbean.

For further guidance on the medical school admissions and application process, contact us at www.collegiategateway.com. As always, we’re happy to help!

Why Attend a Caribbean Medical School?

Due to the extremely competitive nature of medical school admissions in the United States, many applicants opt to obtain their medical education in the Caribbean. To provide context, the admit rate at St. George’s Medical School in Grenada, West Indies, is 41%. This contrasts markedly with the admit rates at the most selective medical schools in the U.S., such as Harvard, with admit rate of 3.7%, Johns Hopkins of 3.9% and Stanford, at 4.7%.

To help you decide if attending these schools would be the best option for you, let’s evaluate their curriculum, accreditation, admission requirements, residency outcomes, and the overall success of their graduates.

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St. George’s Medical School. Source: The New York Times 

Choose Wisely: Regional vs. Offshore

 Caribbean medical schools fall into one of two categories: regional or offshore.

  • Regional medical schools train students to practice in the country or region where the school is located, and are typically the choice for Caribbean residents who wish to practice in their home country.
  • Offshore medical schools in the Caribbean predominantly train students from the United States and Canada who intend to return home for residency and clinical practice after graduation. Most offshore schools are dual-campus programs, where students spend their first two years of medical school in the Caribbean learning basic sciences and prepare for Step 1 of the USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination). Their clinical years are then spent in the United States. Offshore schools find clinical rotations for their students through partnering agreements with U.S. hospitals.

Accreditation

The first factor to consider is that not all Caribbean medical schools are accredited and not all have access to clinical rotations. So before you decide to attend a particular medical school in the Caribbean, make sure that the schools you are considering will allow you to practice and attend clinical rotations in the United States.

Beware of medical schools that use the terms “approved” or “recognized,” which do not connote accreditation. In addition, make sure that the schools have received the official accreditations that truly matter:

  • Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and Health Professions (CAAM-HP): a peer review process adopted by CARICOM (Caribbean Community) to accredit educational institutions within the medical, dental, veterinary and other health professions. Of the 17 medical schools in the Caribbean that requested assessment over recent years from CAAM-HP, only American University of Antigua, St. George’s, and Ross have been accredited.
  • Other countries’ accreditation. Several Caribbean medical schools are located on islands that are owned or accredited by other countries. American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine (AUC), based in St. Maarten, is accredited by Accreditation Commission on Colleges of Medicine (ACCM), in Ireland, recognized by the the US DOE’s National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (see below). Saba University School of Medicine (located in the Dutch island of Saba), is accredited by NVAO, the accreditation organization of Netherlands and Flanders.
  • S. State Recognitions and Approvals. Only a few states in the US have individual review processes to approve students to receive clinical rotations, residencies, and licensure in that state; accreditation by these states is typically recognized by other states as well:
    • New York State Education Department (NYSED)
    • Medical Board of California (MBC)
    • Florida Department of Education (FL DOE)

Tiers of Accreditation

Caribbean medical schools are ranked in three tiers (top-tier, middle-tier, and bottom-tier) based on approvals and accreditations. In order to have the greatest options of practicing medicine within the U.S., aim for top-tier programs.

Schools such as St. George’s, Ross, Saba, American University of the Caribbean (AUC) and American University of Antigua (AUA) College of Medicine operate in the top tier and offer a medical education equivalent to that of U.S. schools. All four have been approved by the licensing boards of New York, California, and Florida. AUA, St. George’s, and Ross have also been accredited by CAAM-HP.

These medical schools have thousands of alumni in residency or practicing throughout the U.S. and Canada.

Eligibility for US Funding

In addition, the National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA), within the U.S. Department of Education (DOE), plays a central role in determining whether American students at foreign medical schools are eligible for federal student loans. NCFMEA is not an accreditation agency. Instead, it reviews the standards that a foreign country uses to accredit its medical schools, and determines whether those standards are comparable to the US. If so, any accredited medical school within that country can apply to participate in DOE’s federal student loan program.

Admissions Selectivity

U.S. medical schools place strong weight on applicants’ MCAT scores and GPA. Therefore, regardless of your passion for medicine and the strength of your medically related experiences (such as research, shadowing, and community service), if you don’t perform well on these numerical criteria, your chances of acceptance drop dramatically.

While the average MCAT and GPA of applicants to U.S. medical schools has remained fairly constant over recent years, the stats of matriculants has increased, along with the numbers of applicants, showing greater selectivity and therefore competition. While the number of applicants increased 14% from the 2012-13 application year to 2017-18, matriculants only rose 9.3% since medical schools are not significantly adding capacity. Admit rate in just this six-year period dropped from 43% to 41%.

 

Applicants 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018
Total MCAT 28.3 28.4 28.6 28.3 501.8 504.7
GPA Total 3.54 3.54 3.55 3.55 3.55 3.56
Total Applicants 45,266 48,014 49,480 52,550 53,042 51,680

 

Matriculants 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018
Total MCAT 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.4 508.7 510.4
GPA Total 3.68 3.69 3.69 3.70 3.7 3.71
Total Matriculants 19,517 20,055 20,343 20,631 21,030 21,338

On the other hand, Caribbean medical schools accept students with lower GPAs and MCAT scores and typically do not have minimums. At AUC, the average accepted student’s GPA is 3.27 and the average MCAT is 469. At St. George’s, the average overall GPA for enrolled students entering fall 2016 was 3.3, with the undergraduate science average of 3.2.

Over the past 40 years, St. George’s University has graduated 17,000 alumni and Ross University has graduated 14,000 alumni. At these schools, a 3.4/3.5 gpa is competitive. If you did poorly freshman year, your admission chances at a U.S. medical school decrease, but Caribbean medical schools will consider you.

Academic Performance

Now that we have established the rationale for attending Caribbean medical schools, let’s look at how their graduates actually perform. How prepared are they for the practice of medicine, and how is their education valued? Two leading measures are the pass rate for the USMLE (Untied States Medical Licensing Examination) and residency placement, respectively.

USMLE
The USMLE consists of Step 1, Step 2 Clinical Knowledge, and Step 3. A passing score on all three parts is required to practice medicine in the US. The steps assess the following:

  • Step 1: Basic science knowledge that is foundational to the practice of medicine; understanding principles underlying health, disease, and modes of therapy.
  • Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) and Clinical Knowledge (CK): Application of medical knowledge, skills, and understanding of clinical science to provide supervised patient care.
  • Step 3: Application of medical knowledge and understanding of biomedical and clinical science to provide unsupervised patient care.

At SGU (St. George’s University School of Medicine) the pass rate in 2017 was an impressive 95% overall, and 95% for US and Canadian students. This compares favorably with the pass rate of 96% at US and Canadian medical schools. The pass rate at SGU has surpassed 95% for five consecutive years. In 2017, the pass rate at other foreign schools was 77%, and the pass rate at US and Canadian DO schools was 95%.

Residency Placement

Residency placement is the all-important next step after medical school, on the path to the practice of medicine.

SGU posts its lists of residency placements online. As an example of the quality of placements, for the Class of 2018 graduates who placed in New York, hospitals included top programs such as Albert Einstein, Mount Sinai, and New York University. Specialties consisted of the full range, including anesthesiology, emergency medicine, family medicine, internal medicine, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, pathology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery.

In 2018, 936 St. George’s University grads procured PGY1 positions. There was 93% residency placement in PGY1 the year of graduation. For U.S. students at Ross University there was 94% residency placement.

 

Fast Facts – Caribbean Offshore vs. US Medical Schools Features

 

Selected Top Tier Caribbean Medical Schools

University Total Enrollment Attrition Rate Median MCAT Median GPA Residencies
St. George’s University 6,021 10% 497 3.33 937
American University of the Caribbean (AUC) 400/ year 13% 496 3.27

 

300

 

Ross University  3,500  27%  496 3.22 627

 

Selected U.S. Medical Schools

University Total Enroll Acceptance Rate Median MCAT Median GPA
Harvard University 726 3.5% 518.72 3.92
George Washington U

 

707

 

2.5%

512

 

3.70

Drexel University

 

1,083

 

4.2%

513

 

3.62

New York Medical College

 

818

 

5.7%

513

 

3.58  

Factors to Consider

Various factors are important to consider when gauging the quality of the medical education you will receive at a particular Caribbean medical school. Ask the following questions:

  1. What are the school’s average USLE Step 1 scores?
  2. How is the curriculum structured?
  3. What are the mean overall and BCPM (biology, chemistry, physics and math) GPAs and MCATS of accepted students? Are MCATs required to submit an application?
  4. Where do students complete third and fourth year clerkships?
  5. Does the Caribbean school encourage away electives?
  6. What percentage of 4th year students earn residency placements?
  7. Where and in what specialties did students in the most recent graduating classes match for residency, and what percentage of fourth year students matched into categorical residencies?

Students should always apply to a few of their dream schools, but they should also consult the MSAR (Medical School Admission Requirements), or individual schools’ websites, to determine a list of five to seven additional schools at which they would be competitive grade-wise. Students should also create a list of three or more schools at which their academics are on the very high end, to maximize the chance of securing an acceptance.

Overall, Caribbean medical schools offer less competitive applicants less selective options, a faster application process, and comparable education and residency opportunities as medical schools in the U.S. For many US students, these options provide you with the chance to successfully pursue your passion for a career in medicine. For more information about applying to medical school, in the US and Caribbean, contact us at http://www.colleagiategateway.com. As always, we’re happy to help!

 

College Grades and Employers: What Matters to Whom

It is not uncommon for students, having worked hard throughout high school in order to gain admission to the college of their dreams, to question the importance of their college grades. Some may think: I’ve gotten into a good college; isn’t it enough to do reasonably well? Does it really matter whether or not I have straight As? Didn’t George W. Bush have a C average at Yale? Things worked out OK for him, right?

The fact is, your grades in college do matter, and not just for those who intend to go on to professional school. But how much they matter will vary somewhat, depending on the employer and the industry.  Keep in mind that GPA is one of many factors that employers use to evaluate prospective employees, and your activities, internships and work experiences are highly valued as well.

Large vs. Small Companies

The extent to which a company will weigh a prospective employee’s GPA depends on a number of factors. It is well-known that more competitive industries tend to care more about grades, especially when you’re talking about particularly selective jobs in finance and consulting. A lesser known factor, however, is size; generally, larger companies will expect to see your GPA on a resume, and will more commonly use that number to screen applicants. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers’ Job Outlook 2013 survey, the percentage of employers who screen candidates by GPA reached an all-time high this past year: 78.3% of the survey’s 200 respondents. Notably, these respondents tended to be big companies, averaging about 7,500 people on the payroll.

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Of these same respondents, 63.5 percent of respondents reported a “cut-off” (or minimum GPA required for consideration) of exactly 3.0, with just over 20 percent using a GPA cutoff greater than 3.0.  The remaining 16 percent of respondents use GPA cutoffs less than 3.0, with some as low as 2.0. Notably, these minimum GPAs remain fairly consistent across industries.

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Generally, however, smaller companies and start-ups place a lesser emphasis on GPA. Nevertheless, if your grades are good, you should say so. While these employers don’t necessarily expect to see a GPA on your resume, it doesn’t mean they don’t care at all. In a recent article in Forbes, Dean Iacovetti, director of recruiting at a Apprenda, a software company in Manhattan, stated that while he didn’t require applicants to report a GPA, he still takes notice of a strong one. “If there’s an individual graduating with a 3.5 from Cornell, that’s someone I’d like to see.”

The Role of Other Factors

If you’re concerned that your grades don’t quite measure up, however, don’t despair. While GPA can be a large factor in determining qualifications, it is still only one factor. There are a number of ways to make up for and explain slightly lower grades. For example, recruiters at many companies are familiar with the schools where they recruit; they understand that a B in a tough class at a competitive school may be a greater accomplishment than an A somewhere else. Additionally, if the GPA in your major is better than your overall average, you can list that number, or both.

Another recent survey of 704 employers by the Chronicle of Education found that, while grades are important, experience is even better; employers place more weight on real work experience, particularly internships and employment during school than academic credentials including GPA and college major. Approximately 50% of science and technology employers valued candidates more based on their experience, compared to 19% who valued candidates more based on academic merit. In media and communications, 48% valued prior experience more and 20% valued academic records more. As such, students can compensate for lower grades by emphasizing work experience, and highlighting successes.

For more guidance developing your career, contact Collegiate Gateway – we’re happy to help!