Tag Archives: MD/MPH

What Is an MD/MPH? And Why Get One?

In our constantly evolving healthcare environment, physicians with interdisciplinary skill sets are becoming increasingly valuable. Those graduating with dual degrees such as an MD/MPH are uniquely situated to tackle some of healthcare’s most pressing challenges, which include disparities in access to care, high costs, and controversial reform.  MD/MPH programs lie at the intersection of medicine and public health, as they combine an individual patient-based approach with a wider population health perspective. Those pursuing this degree may be looking for a role beyond patient care, which could include policy-making, disease prevention, health education, or health research.

Those who pursue an MD/MPH do so for a multitude of reasons. Many utilize this additional skill set to enhance their standard, day-to-day clinical practice. According to the UNC School of Medicine, the MPH provides a broader social context, an emphasis on preventative medicine, and a focus on improving quality of care. Up to 25% of each class graduates from its well-established Health Care and Prevention MD-MPH program.

Differences in Programs

It is essential to consider your professional goals when choosing where and how to complete your dual degree, as one may be a better fit for your particular interests. For example, NYU’s MD/MPH in Global Health degree strongly emphasizes a global health perspective, and includes coursework in community and international health, epidemiology, and public health. In contrast. In contrast, BU’s curriculum is more flexible, offering areas of specialization ranging from Environmental Hazard Assessment to Health Policy and Law. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) notes that “over 80 medical schools sponsor activities to help their medical students pursue a master’s degree in public health.” As such, it is essential for prospective students to compare various programs in order to find the right one for their specific interests and goals.

When to Apply

MD/MPH programs can also differ in a number of other ways – including when you would actually apply. At some schools, prospective students apply for the dual degree as they are applying for medical school admission, while others encourage you to apply once you have already matriculated.  Still others, such as New Jersey Medical School and the Rutgers School of Public Health, offer the opportunity to add the MPH degree after extending acceptance letters for the MD degree.

Length of Program

If truly integrated, the two degrees can be achieved in four years, as is the case at the University of Miami. Yet, the majority of MD/MPH students require a fifth year to obtain this additional degree. Harvard’s combined degree program requires a leave of absence from the medical school between the third and fourth years. Thus in choosing where to pursue your MD/MPH, it is important to consider your willingness to interrupt your medical training, as well as your ability to balance the demands of an accelerated program.

Cost

Now for the all-important question: how much is this going to cost you?  This additional degree will likely come at an extra cost, yet financial assistance opportunities and discounted tuition are quite common. Tulane for example, offers both merit-based and research-based scholarships, in addition to need-based financial aid.

Is the MD/MPH Right for You?

To successfully navigate our complex healthcare environment, the AAMC cites the natural and essential overlap between medicine and public health. But despite the prevalence of MD/MPH programs, not every medical school offers one, and not every student interested in public health will pursue one. Today’s aspiring physicians will likely receive some public health education regardless of whether they are involved in an MD/MPH program or not. Many medical schools­­—often in addition to offering an MD/MPH­­—have now integrated public health concepts into their standard curriculum. Recent policy initiatives such as the Affordable Care Act, with its emphasis on preventive care and population health, further underscore the need to effectively integrate these two disciplines.

Depending on your personal interests and professional goals, an MD/MPH might very well be the right path for you. It is not only a decision about whether or not to pursue this dual degree, but also a matter of which program is the best fit.

And if you have any questions or are in need of guidance, contact Collegiate Gateway—we’re always happy to help!

Trends in Medical School Curricula

As our healthcare systems continuously evolve, medical education must follow accordingly. Although each medical school continues to offer its own unique curriculum, curricula as a whole are following several overriding trends. These changes, outlined below, are intended to strengthen the academic experience of students, while creating more versatile and well-rounded physicians.

Starting clinical work earlier

Many schools have begun to phase out the traditional structure of medical education: two years of pre-clinical, basic science work followed by two years of clinical work. By starting clinical training earlier on in their education, students are able to utilize and expand their hands-on doctoring skills right from the start. This helps students hone their clinical skills, and enables them to apply knowledge from the classroom to relevant real-world situations.

However, med schools are approaching this change in very different ways. On one end of the spectrum, schools such as Duke and Vanderbilt have moved to an extremely accelerated curriculum with only one year of the core basic sciences, followed by core clinical clerkships beginning in year two. Similarly, Harvard has announced that in August of 2015 they will launch a new curriculum, Pathways, that also condenses the basic sciences to the first year.

On the other hand, Mount Sinai has maintained the structure of starting formalized clinical clerkships in the third year, but during year one, med students are partnered with patients to begin a longitudinal clinical experience. Several other medical schools, including Weill and Perelman, have struck a middle ground: students learn the core basic sciences for one and half years, with core clinical clerkships beginning in January of year two.

More flexibility

By finishing core clinical work earlier, students are granted greater flexibility in the third and fourth years, allowing for research opportunities and an abundance of elective choices. At Duke School of Medicine, students dedicate a full year to a scholarly research experience. During this year, students may pursue research or a dual degree, while also completing electives, some standard coursework, and studying for the Step 1 Exam. Similarly, Weill Cornell students are required to select an Area of Concentration (AOC) midway through their third year; these range from global health to neuroinflammation. Students choose their AOC based on personal interest, and then work to obtain in-depth knowledge, skills, and a scholarly project within that particular area.

More interdisciplinary coursework

Physicians must develop a diverse skill set to successfully navigate an increasingly complex healthcare environment. As a result, several schools have carefully crafted their curricula to include courses and themes that span beyond the basic and clinical sciences. This fosters a more interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on topics such as health policy, ethics, and population health. In fact, Albert Einstein College of Medicine incorporates a theme of population health into already existing courses and clerkships.

To cater to students with more interdisciplinary interests, many schools offer dual degrees, including an MD/PhD, MD/MPH, and MD/MBA. Certain schools also offer dual degrees in areas such as health policy, clinical investigation and bioethics.

Shortening the duration of a medical education

Partly as a result of the earlier clinical training, several med schools, such as NYU, have begun to offer a pilot “three-year pathway” program. The 3-year program is very similar to the core 4-year MD program, except that 3-year MD students start rotations in their chosen specialty six weeks earlier and spend their first summer pursuing a research fellowship in that same department. These students declare their specialty when they apply, and are guaranteed residencies in an NYU-affiliated hospital. This way, students don’t have to worry about matching into residency programs that may still be wary of the 3-year medical degree.

There is ongoing debate as to whether or not shortening the medical school education is beneficial. In a New England Journal of Medicine perspective piece, Drs. Goldfarb and Morrison state “Given the growing complexity of medicine, it seems counterproductive to compress the curriculum into 3 years, reducing both preclinical and clinical experiences.” Yet, in another Perspective piece, the authors claimed that a shorter medical school education could alleviate the physician shortage by producing physicians at a faster rate, and substantially reduce student debt. Dr. Steven Abramson, vice dean for education, faculty and academic affairs at NYU School of Medicine, predicts: “You’re going to see this kind of three-year pathway become very prominent across the country.”

Emphasis on problem-based learning

Medical education is also increasingly incorporating problem-based learning (PBL) into the pre-clinical years. This technique utilizes clinical cases to stimulate discussion among a small group of students, thereby creating a real-life, collaborative and active learning environment. For example, at Feinberg School of Medicine, each PBL is comprised of 6 to 9 students and a faculty facilitator. The overall PBL process “mimics the manner in which a practicing physician obtains data from a patient.” This enables students to further develop skills essential to becoming a successful physician, such as teamwork and communication.

Most schools have established an effective mix of PBL and standard lecture-based teaching. The Integrated Pathways Curriculum at SUNY Downstate, for example, offers reduced lecture time in favor of a greater emphasis on small-group learning such as PBL. 

For more information on medical education or any other part of the medical school application process, contact Collegiate Gateway – as always, we’re happy to help.

What an MD/MPH Can Do for Your Career

In our constantly evolving healthcare environment, physicians with interdisciplinary skill sets are becoming increasingly valuable. Those graduating with dual degrees such as an MD/MPH are uniquely poised to tackle some of healthcare’s most pressing challenges, which include disparities in access to care, high costs, and controversial reform.

USC-Keck-Medical-School-Quad

USC’s School of Medicine

How Can an MPH Help You as a Physician?

MD/MPH programs lie at the intersection of patient-based medicine and public health. According to the UNC School of Medicine, the MPH provides a broader social context and a focus on improving quality of care. Those pursuing this degree are often seeking a role beyond patient care, which could include policy-making, disease prevention, health education, or health research.

According to Dr. Judith Green McKenzie MD-MPH, Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, the value of the MPH lies in its ability to expand a physician’s perspective:

“The physician is not only able to take care of one patient at a time but can also use the knowledge gained from the data available to implement changes that would affect the patient population as a whole. This is important towards preventive measures. The impact is not just local (one patient) but global (many patients).” 

Potential Career Paths

There is a broad array of career paths associated with the MPH degree that span public policy, private industry, research and community outreach. According to Brown’s PLME program (Program in Liberal Medical Education), these include the following:

  • International work
  • Environmental health, such as regulation of toxic elements in water
  • Behavioral health: diversity across populations; ethnic/racial group behaviors
  • Health promotion and disease intervention
  • Health management
  • Community outreach and serving the underserved
  • Working with the CDC: regulation of health policy and health education
  • Public policy: federal and state government
  • Special population groups, such as aging and gerontology, maternal and child health
  • Private industry, including epidemiology, pharmaceuticals, health education
  • Research
LSH-Poster-Boards-Mosquitoes

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Research Poster Board Presentation

Practitioners with a combined training in medicine and public health can treat individual patients while at the same time contributing to public health discourse. Dr. Christina Tan, MD-MPH, Assistant Commissioner for Epidemiology, Environmental and Occupational Health for New Jersey, serves as the top epidemiologist for the state. Last fall, she had the responsibility for assessing the readiness of New Jersey to handle the possibility of Ebola. With regard to her training, she says:

“The MPH program helped solidify and enhance my understanding of epidemiology and public health policy, as it’s important to have an understanding of the historical, legal, and scientific context of public health practice (which is very different from clinical work).”

Differences in MD-MPH Programs

It is essential for prospective students to compare programs in order to find the right one for their specific interests and goals. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), more than 80 medical schools sponsor activities to help students pursue an MPH.  These range in structure from the fully integrated program offered by the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, which houses both the MD and MPH programs within one professional school, to the combined MD-MPH program offered by Yale University School of Medicine and Yale School of Public Health, to Duke University School of Medicine’s partnership with the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. These programs differ greatly in their curriculum, concentrations, length and cost

Concentrations

Make sure to check out whether the program includes concentrations that match your interests!  For example, whereas Boston University’s curricular program is flexible, offering concentrations ranging from environmental health to health policy and management, New York University’s MD/MPH degree strongly emphasizes a global health perspective.

NYU-International-Health-Program

Many MD/MPH programs offer standard concentrations such as public health, global health, maternal and child health, and epidemiology.  But if you are interested in less conventional specialty areas, do some research to find appropriate programs. For example, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health offers Law and Public Health, Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health offers Biostatistics and BU offers the interdisciplinary concentration of Health Law, Bioethics and Human Rights. Tufts University’s School of Medicine Public Health Program takes a different approach, offering a generalist MPH degree without any concentrations.

Location

You may want to consider the state in which you ultimately want to practice, so that you can begin to make contacts with nearby related organizations. Or perhaps the location has value for other reasons, such as wanting to stay close to home or in a particular region of the country.  For example, New York has 10 MD-MPH programs, including SUNY Downstate, Einstein, Columbia, Mount Sinai, NYU and University of Rochester. On the other hand, some states such as Alabama, Oklahoma and Wisconsin, have only one MD-MPH program, part of the state system.

Length of Program

Combined MD-MPH programs last either four or five years. The typical model for 5-year programs is to complete the MPH between the 3rd and 4th years of the MD program, as at Boston University, Columbia and Harvard. Several schools offer a 4-year option through a more condensed approach that includes the three summers between academic years. At SUNY Downstate, you can complete coursework over three summers; at the Keck School of Medicine at USC, you use three summers to complete a 150-hour practicum. The University of Miami Miller School of Medicine has a fully integrated program that culminates with a capstone field experience of 300 contact hours. In choosing where to pursue your MD/MPH, therefore, it is important to consider your willingness to interrupt your medical training, as well as your ability to balance the demands of an accelerated program.

Cost

The cost of adding this additional degree may also be an influential factor, yet financial assistance opportunities and discounted tuition are quite common. At Feinberg School of Medicine, the cost of an MPH is simply a surcharge on top of the standard medical school tuition. Other schools, such as Tulane, offer their MD/MPH students both merit-based and research-based scholarships.

When to Attend

The experience of undertaking a Masters in Public Health varies greatly, depending on how you time your work experience. You could undertake a dual MD-MPH, or you could receive your MD degree and subsequently obtain an MPH immediately or after working. Yet another option is to “intercalate” a Master of Science degree in the UK in the midst of your MD program. The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine offers an outstanding one-year MSc program that students can take between their third and fourth years of medical school. Thirteen MSc courses are available, such as Global Mental Health, Nutrition for Global Health and Public Health in Development Countries.

LSH-Library

London School of Hygiene Library

Dr. Tan elaborated in an email about the pros and cons of attending an MPH program before or after work experience: “Because I got my MPH about 10 years after my MD degree (and after working at governmental public health agencies), I wanted to use the MPH as a way to “fill-in-the-blanks” regarding what I was already doing in my work.”

TIMING

PROS

CONS

PRE-WORK
  • Acquire skills for a public health job
  • Build a network of contacts
  • Add an analytical component to your MD curriculum
  • You may not yet know your field of concentration
  • You will need to obtain required fieldwork experience while at university
POST-WORK
  • You will be aware of your knowledge deficits from your actual work experience
  • You will be a stronger candidate due to your real-world experience
  • It may be difficult to return to a classroom environment after work
  • You may find it challenging to forego income at a later stage in life

 

When to Apply

MD/MPH programs can also differ in a number of other ways, including when you would actually apply. At some schools, such as SUNY Downstate and USC, prospective students apply for the dual degree as they are applying for medical school admission. Others, such as NYU, encourage you to apply once you have already matriculated.  Still others, such as UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and UMDNJ-School of Public Health, offer the opportunity to add the MPH degree after extending acceptance letters for the MD degree.  In addition, there is always the option to apply years after receiving your MD degree and practicing medicine.

Is the MD/MPH Right for You?

To successfully navigate our complex healthcare environment, the AAMC cites the natural and essential overlap between medicine and public health. But despite the prevalence of MD/MPH programs, not every medical school offers one, and not every student interested in public health will pursue one. Additionally, today’s aspiring physicians will likely receive some public health education regardless of whether or not they are involved in an MD/MPH program. Many medical schools – often in addition to offering an MD/MPH –  have now integrated public health concepts into their standard curriculum. Recent policy initiatives such as the Affordable Care Act, with its emphasis on preventive care and population health, further underscore the need to effectively integrate these two disciplines.

Depending on your personal interests and professional goals, an MD/MPH might very well be the right path for you. It is not only a decision about whether or not to pursue this dual degree, but also a matter of which institution provides the best fit. Check out the resources offered by the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) MD-MPH resource guide and the Association of Schools of Public Health.

Choosing to pursue an MD/MPH is a complicated process that varies greatly for different individuals. For more guidance, contact Collegiate Gateway – we’re always happy to help.

What Is an MD/MPH? And Why Get One?

In our constantly evolving healthcare environment, physicians with interdisciplinary skill sets are becoming increasingly valuable. Those graduating with dual degrees such as an MD/MPH are uniquely situated to tackle some of healthcare’s most pressing challenges, which include disparities in access to care, high costs, and controversial reform.  MD/MPH programs lie at the intersection of medicine and public health, as they combine an individual patient-based approach with a wider population health perspective.

Those who pursue an MD/MPH do so for a multitude of reasons. Many utilize this additional skill set to enhance their standard, day-to-day clinical practice. According to the UNC School of Medicine, the MPH provides a broader social context, an emphasis on preventative medicine, and a focus on improving quality of care. Those pursuing this degree may also be looking for a role beyond patient care, which could include policy-making, disease prevention, health education, or health research.

Differences in Programs

It is essential to consider your professional goals when choosing where and how to complete your dual degree, as one may be a better fit for your particular interests. For example, NYU’s MD/MPH degree strongly emphasizes a global health perspective, whereas BU’s program is more flexible, offering concentrations ranging from environmental health to health policy and management. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) notes that “over 80 medical schools sponsor activities to help their medical students pursue a master’s degree in public health.” As such, it is essential for prospective students to compare various programs in order to find the right one for their specific interests and goals.

When to Apply

MD/MPH programs can also differ in a number of other ways – including when you would actually apply. At some schools, prospective students apply for the dual degree as they are applying for medical school admission, while others encourage you to apply once you have already matriculated.  Still others, such as UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and UMDNJ-School of Public Healh, offer the opportunity to add the MPH degree after extending acceptance letters for the MD degree.

Length of Program

If truly integrated, the two degrees can be achieved in four years, as is the case at the University of Miami. Yet, the majority of MD/MPH students require a fifth year to obtain this additional degree. Harvard’s combined degree program requires a leave of absence from the medical school between the third and fourth years. Thus in choosing where to pursue your MD/MPH, it is important to consider your willingness to interrupt your medical training, as well as your ability to balance the demands of an accelerated program.

Cost

Now for the all-important question: how much is this going to cost you?  This additional degree will likely come at an extra cost, yet financial assistance opportunities and discounted tuition are quite common. At Feinberg School of Medicine, the cost of an MPH is simply a surcharge on top of the standard medical school tuition. Other schools, such as Tulane offer their MD/MPH students both merit-based and research-based scholarships.

Is the MD/MPH Right for You?

To successfully navigate our complex healthcare environment, the AAMC cites the natural and essential overlap between medicine and public health. But despite the prevalence of MD/MPH programs, not every medical school offers one, and not every student interested in public health will pursue one. Today’s aspiring physicians will likely receive some public health education regardless of whether they are involved in an MD/MPH program or not. Many medical schools­­—often in addition to offering an MD/MPH­­—have now integrated public health concepts into their standard curriculum. Recent policy initiatives such as the Affordable Care Act, with its emphasis on preventive care and population health, further underscore the need to effectively integrate these two disciplines.

Depending on your personal interests and professional goals, an MD/MPH might very well be the right path for you. It is not only a decision about whether or not to pursue this dual degree, but also a matter of which program is the best fit.

And if you have any questions or are in need of guidance, contact Collegiate Gateway—we’re always happy to help!